In 1897 all the forts on the Samana were attacked by the Orakzais, arid this and the Afridi attack on the Khyber Pass were the two chief causes of the Tirah Expedition.
Sir Donald Stewart's force, marching up through Baluchistan by the Bolan Pass, entered Kandahar with little or no resistance; while another army passed through the Khyber Pass and took up positions at Jalalabad and other places on the direct road to Kabul.
Across this barrier the old road from Kabul to India ran before the Khyber Pass was adopted as the main route.
The place is of both political and commercial importance, as the Indus is here crossed by the military and trade route through the Khyber Pass into Afghanistan.
Between this agency and the Khyber Pass lie the Mohmand hills, a rough country with but little cultivation, under the political control of Peshawar.
This led to long negotiations, and ultimately to war, when the British forced the Khyber Pass in November 1878, and defeated the amir's forces on every occasion.