West and south-west of the Khyber again is the country of the Afridis and the Orakzais.
Across this barrier the old road from Kabul to India ran before the Khyber Pass was adopted as the main route.
Between Jalalabad and Peshawar is the Khyber pass.
In 1897 all the forts on the Samana were attacked by the Orakzais, arid this and the Afridi attack on the Khyber Pass were the two chief causes of the Tirah Expedition.
To Jamrud at the entrance to the Khyber Pass.
The Khyber was not in ancient times the main route of advance from Kabul to Peshawar.
Strategically it is an important topographical feature, for it divides the basin of the Kabul river and the Khyber route from the valley of Kurram, leaving no practicable pass across its rugged crest to connect the two.
In addition, the reserve of the native army numbered 34,846 men, the volunteers 34,962, the frontier militia (including the Khyber Rifles) about 6000, the levies (chiefly in Baluchistan) about 6000, and the military police (chiefly in Burma) about 22,000.
The place is of both political and commercial importance, as the Indus is here crossed by the military and trade route through the Khyber Pass into Afghanistan.
This led to long negotiations, and ultimately to war, when the British forced the Khyber Pass in November 1878, and defeated the amir's forces on every occasion.