Balfour's Foundations of Belief, welcomed in Germany by Julius Kaftan (see below).
Over all is worn a long cloth robe, the gibbeh (or jibbeh) somewhat resembling the kaftan in shape, but having shorter sleeves, and being open in front.
The kaftan is confined by the girdle, which is a silk scarf, or cashmere or other woollen shawl.
Julius Kaftan - Balfour's German editor, and a highly influential theologian, occupying a position of modified Ritschlianism - is also a very thoroughgoing empiricist.
Herrmann, Julius Kaftan and Adolf Harnack are the chief names, diverges from his teaching in many directions; e.g.
Kuprili, who had forbidden the Polish enterprise, at once occupied Transylvania, and, in the course of the next five years, no fewer than four princes, three of whom died violent deaths, were forced to accept the kaftan and kalpag of investiture in the camp of the grand vizier.