The cultus applied at first to local martyrs, and it was only in exceptional circumstances that a kind of judiciary inquiry and express decision became necessary to legitimate this cultus.
The constitutional changes since 18 4 6 affect principally the judiciary and cities.
Baldwin, The American Judiciary (ibid., 1905).
Returning to Massachusetts, he spoke and wrote in opposition to its ratification, and although not a member of the convention called to pass upon it, he laid before this convention, by request, his reasons for opposing it, among them being that the constitution contained no bill of rights, that the executive would unduly influence the legislative branch of the government, and that the judiciary would be oppressive.
Propositions to establish the judiciary on a more permanent tenure were also voted down in 1814, 1822, 1857 and 1870, and the state still elects its judges for two years' terms. On its own suggestion, the council of censors was abolished in 1870 and the present method of amending the constitution was adopted.
The constitution of 1894 made further important changes in the judiciary and in the government of cities.
Under the guidance of Judges John Jay, Marshall, and Joseph Story, the judiciary from 1790 to 1835 had followed the Federalist loose construction methods of interpreting the constitution.
From 1220 onward, the judiciary powers of these assemblies were exercised by a tour majour of twelve barons jurats charged with the duty of maintaining the integrity of the fors.
The organization of the judiciary is similar to that under the old English system.
Here he became the recognized Democratic leader and in 1879-1881 was chairman of the judiciary committee.