There were in 1908 two penitentiaries, one at Joliet and one at Chester, and, in addition to the two reformatory institutions for young offenders under the supervision of the Board of Charities, there is a State Reformatory for boys at Pontiac. The indeterminate sentence and parole systems are important features of the treatment of criminals.
In 1673 a French expedition organized in Canada under Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet sailed down the Mississippi to the mouth of the Arkansas, and nine years later (1682) Rene Robert Cavelier, sieur de la Salle, reached the mouth of the river, took formal possession of the country which it drains, and named it Louisiana in honour of Louis XIV.
Father Marquette, forced in 1671 by Indian wars to abandon his post on Chequamegon Bay, settled with the Huron at the Straits of Mackinac, whence in May 1673 accompanied by Louis Joliet he set out for the Mississippi river.
Long was therefore completed in 1900 to divert the Chicago river, a small stream that flows into the lake, into the head waters of the Des Plaines river and thence through the river Joliet into the Mississippi at St Louis.