An insurrection had occurred in Bitlis, the Hamawand were still virtually outlaws and the whole country refused to respond to the call to a jihad against the British.
In support of the policy, and to emphasize the religious character of Ottoman war aims, a Jihad or Holy War was proclaimed by the Sultan as Caliph of Islam.
In the belief of Moslems every one of their number slain in a jihad is taken straight to paradise.
Mahommed Ahmad (the Sudanese mandi) proclaimed a jihad in 1882.
Thereupon Fodio unfurled the green banner of Mahomet and preached a jihad or religious war.