Javanese influence is also traceable in the use of three varieties of speech, as in the Javanese language, according to the rank of the people addressed.
The Sumatran rhinoceros differs from the Javanese in having two horns, like the African variety.
It has adopted a certain number of vocables from Sanskrit, Malay, Javanese and Portuguese, but on the whole is remarkably pure, and has undergone comparatively few recent changes.
It is said to have been attacked and devastated by the Javanese in 1252, and at the time when it passed by treaty to the East India Company in 1819, Sir Stamford Raffles persuading the sultan and tumenggong of Johor to cede it to him, it was wholly uninhabited save by a few fisherfolk living along its shores.
Batavia owes its origin to the Dutch governor-general Pieter Both, who in 1610 established a factory at Jacatra (which had been built on the ruins of the old Javanese town of Sunda Calappa), and to his successor, Jan Pieters Coen, who in 1619 founded in its stead the present city, which soon acquired a flourishing trade and increased in importance.
The same character is employed by their immediate neighbours to the south, the Pasumas, who bear traces of Javanese influence.
The natives consist of Middle Javanese in the north and Sundanese in the south.
In September 1689 he reached Batavia; spent the following winter in studying Javanese natural history; and in May 1690 set out for Japan as physician to the embassy sent yearly to that country by the Dutch.
The officers were all Dutch till 1908, when a trial was made of native officers from noble Javanese families.
The following table affords comparisons in the revenue and expenditure: - The monetary system is similar to that of Holland (the unit being the guilder), but there are also certain silver and copper coins of small value bearing Malay or Javanese inscriptions.