In the West, Gallican and Febronian Episcopacy are represented by two ecclesiastical bodies: the Jansenist Church under the archbishop of Utrecht (see JANSENISM and UTRECHT), and the Old Catholics.
In 1716, because, as the duke of Orleans said, he was neither Jansenist nor Molinist, nor Ultramontanist, but Catholic, died on the 14th of July 1723.
After studying theology in the Jansenist schools for some years, he suddenly decided to adopt the profession of medicine.
There she became more and more Jansenist in opinion, and her piety and the remembrance of her influence during the disastrous days of the Fronde, and above all the love her brother, the great Conde, bore her, made her conspicuous.
He effected a temporary adjustment of the Jansenist controversy; was instrumental in concluding the peace of Aix-laChapelle (1668); healed a long-standing breach between the Holy See and Portugal; aided Venice against the Turks, and laboured unceasingly for the relief of Crete, the fall of which hastened his death on the 9th of October 1669.
There is also a Jansenist church, to which a seminary is attached.
A few small Jansenist congregations still survive in France; and others have been started in connexion with the Old Catholic Church in Holland.
The Molinist subsequently passed into the Jansenist controversy (see Jansenism) .
The Jansenist and Gallican influence was also strongly felt in Italy and in Germany, where Breviaries based on the French models were published at Cologne, Munster, Mainz and other towns.
He also published An Introduction to the History of the Holy Eastern Church (1850, 2 vols.); History of the so-called Jansenist Church of Holland (1858); Essays on Liturgiology and Church History (1863); and many other works.