In some of the terrestrial Isopoda or woodlice (Oniscoidea) the abdominal appendages have ramified tubular invaginations of the integument, filled with air and resembling the tracheae of insects.
A general uniformity of the trunk-limbs in Isopoda justifies the ordinal name, but the valviferous Astacillidae, and among the Asellota the Munnopsidae, offer some remarkable exceptions to this characteristic. Among many essential works on this group may be named the Monogr.
Among the Malacostraca some Schizopoda, the Cumacea, Tanaidacea, Isopoda and Amphipoda (sometimes grouped all together as Peracarida) have a marsupium or brood-pouch formed by overlapping plates attached to the bases of some of the thoracic legs.
Orders: Decapoda (Sub-orders: Brachyura, Macrura), Schizopoda (including Anaspides), Stomatopoda, Sympoda (Cumacea), Isopoda (including Tanaidacea), Amphipoda.
Hansen (1890); Isopoda Terrestria, Budde-Lund (1885); Bopyridae, Bonnier (1900); Crustacea of Norway, vol.
In the parasitic Copepoda and Isopoda the disparity in size is carried to an extreme degree, and the minute male is attached, like a parasite, to the enormously larger female.
The first tribe, called Chelifera, from the usually chelate or claw-bearing first limbs, may be regarded as Isopoda anomala, of whieh some authors would form a separate order, Tanaidea.
Hansen and others form a distinct order Tanaidea for the decidedly anomalous group called by Sars Isopoda chelifera.
In the Decapoda three pairs are thus modified, and in the Tanaidacea, Isopoda and Amphipoda only one.
A few Isopoda are known from Secondary rocks, but their systematic position is doubtful and they throw no light on the evolution of the group. The Amphipoda are not definitely known to occur till Tertiary times.