But their colonies were democracies, disunited because each was pursuing its own special interests, while the French were united under despotic leadership. Frontenac attacked the Iroquois mercilessly in 1696 and forced these proud savages to sue for peace.
The Iroquois naturally turned first to the Dutch and then to the English for allies.
His father, James Clinton (1736-1812), served as a captain of provincial troops in the French and Indian War, and as a brigadier-general in the American army in the War of Independence, taking part in Montgomery's attack upon Quebec in 1775, unsuccessfully resisting at Fort Montgomery, along the Hudson, in 1777 the advance of Sir Henry Clinton, accompanying General John Sullivan in 177 9 in his expedition against the Iroquois in western New York, and in 1781 taking part in the siege of Yorktown, Virginia.
A war with the Tuscarora Indians, in 1711-1713, resulted in the defeat of the Indians and the removal of the greater part of the tribe to New York, where they became the sixth nation of the Iroquois confederacy.
That Lafitau, a Jesuit missionary in North America, while inclined to take a mystical view of the secrets concealed by Iroquois myths, had also pointed out the savage element surviving in Greek mythology.5 Recent Mythological Systems. - Up to a very recent date students of mythology were hampered by orthodox traditions, and still more by ignorance of the ancient languages and of the natural history of man.
During the summer General John Sullivan marched with a large force against the Indians (all the Iroquois tribes except the Oneidas and part of the Tuscaroras siding with the British during the war) and against the Loyalists of western New York, who had been committing great depredations along the frontier; and on the 29th of August he inflicted a crushing defeat upon them at Newtown, on the site of the present Elmira.
In 1768 the Iroquois ceded whatever claim they had to the English, and in 1769 several cabins were built along the Watauga and Holston rivers upon what was thought to be Virginian soil.
Even after the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748) the Iroquois complained bitterly of the fraudulent land speculators, and in 1753 the chiefs of the Mohawks threatened to declare the covenant chain broken.
In 1701, New York, seeking another claim, obtained from the Iroquois a grant to the king of England of this territory which they claimed to have conquered but from which they had subsequently been expelled, and this grant was confirmed in 1726 and again in 1744 About 1730 English traders from Pennsylvania and Virginia began to visit the eastern and southern parts of the territory and the crisis approached as a French Canadian expedition under Celeron de Bienville took formal possession of the upper Ohio Valley by planting leaden plates at the mouths of the principal streams. This was in 1749 and in the same year George II.
The defences had been strengthened, a fort was built at Cataraqui (now Kingston), Ontario, bearing the governor's name, and conditions of peace had been fairly maintained between the Iroquois on the one hand and the French and their allies, the Ottawas and the Hurons, on the other.