The governorship of Irak was confided to a Kalbite, Mansur b.
The successors of Mahommed in Irak were Mahmud (d.
In 639 the armies of Syria and Irak were face to face in Mesopotamia.
For this purpose Irak had to furnish the largest contingent.
In the time of the civil war the marshlands in Irak between Basra and Wasit had been occupied by a large population of Indians, called yat, or, according to the Arabic pronunciation, Zoti, who infested the roads and levied a heavy tribute from the ships ascending and descending the Tigris.
From Bamian it passes over the central mountain chain to Kabul either by the well-known passes of Irak (marking the water-divide of the Koh-i-Baba) and of Unai (marking the summit of the Sanglakh, a branch of the Hindu Kush), or else, turning eastwards, it crosses into the Ghorband valley by the Shibar, a pass which is considerably lower than the Irak and is very seldom snowbound.
When Abdalmalik, after a stay of forty days, returned from Irak to Syria, he left two Omayyad princes as his vicegerents in Kuf a and Basra.
The Irak of Persia was overcome by Khalid in a single campaign, and there was also a successful expedition into Syria.
The largest and strongest group of these were the Persians, who, before the conquest of Irak by the Moslems, were the ruling class of that country, so that Persian was the dominant language.
In the east the realm of Islam had been very much extended under the reign of Moawiya, when Ziyad was governor of Irak and Khorasan.