Their representatives, with one exception, came from Ionia and its islands, which from their position were most favourably situated for the acquisition of knowledge concerning the distant countries of East and West.
And now in all the Greek cities of Aeolis and Ionia the oligarchies or tyrants friendly to Persia fell, and democracies were established under the eye of Alexander's officers.
Hogarth, Ionia and the East (Oxford, 1909), pp. 64 sqq.; E.
Weege (in Jahrbuch, 1916) on the two most important series of paintings at Corneto argues that these were executed in the archaic style of North Ionia by a Greek artist who had lived among the Etruscans long enough to understand their national life and spirit.
It included Mysia, Lydia, Caria and Phrygia, and therefore, of course, Aeolis, Ionia and the Troad.
Antiquities of Ionia (London, 1797), ii.
It affected Ionia in the first place, and the mainland of Greece indirectly; the art of Ionia at this period is almost unknown, but it was probably closely allied to that of Phrygia.
Of the three great river basins of Ionia and Lydia, those of the Hermus, Cayster and Maeander, it commanded the second, and had already access by easy passes to the other two.
Black bulls, symbolical of the stormy sea, were sacrificed to him, and often thrown alive into rivers; in Ionia and Thessaly bull-fights took place in his honour; at a festival of his at Ephesus the cupbearers were called.
The Greek cities were conquered, and the coast of Ionia included within the Lydian kingdom.