In 1073, while Germany was in this confused state, Hildebrand had become pope as Gregory VII., and in 1075 he issued his famous decree against the marriage of the clergy and against their investiture by laymen.
Kuprili, who had forbidden the Polish enterprise, at once occupied Transylvania, and, in the course of the next five years, no fewer than four princes, three of whom died violent deaths, were forced to accept the kaftan and kalpag of investiture in the camp of the grand vizier.
On the other hand the pope ceded to the emperor the right of investiture by the sceptre.
And also the investiture of the extensive territories left by Matilda, marchioness of Tuscany; and at this time the pope seems to have claimed the emperor as his vassal, a statement to this effect (post homo fit papac, sumit quo dante coronam) being inscribed in the audience hall of the Lateran at Rome.
The points of dispute between them related mainly to Matildas bequest, and to the kingdom of Sicily, which the pope had rendered independent of the empire by renewing its investiture in the name of the Holy See.
Of Anjou, upon whom he conferred the investiture of the kingdom of Sicily, together with the title of gonfalonier of the church.
The formal investiture of the new elector took place at Augsburg in February 1548.
When Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony and Bavaria, was placed under the imperial ban in 1180, Otto's services were rewarded by the investiture of the dukedom of Bavaria at Altenburg.
No one found anything objectionable in this; investiture with a bishopric was parallel with the appointment by a territorial proprietor to a patronal church.
The internal government was to be exercised by a hospodar, who received his investiture from the sultan, the sign of vassalship, it has been said (Tchomacoff p. 45).