The principal street, which is considered one of the finest boulevards in South America, is the Calle 18 de Julio, extending eastward from the Plaza de la Independencia to the suburb of Cordon; one of its features is its Sunday morning market, occupying the whole street from the Plaza de la Independencia to the Plaza Libertad, a distance of half a mile - a survival of the old market that existed here at the fortified entrance to the walled town in the earlier years of its history.
There are several public squares and gardens, the more important being the Praca Harmonia, the Pra9a d'Alfandega, Pra9a da Independencia and the Parque, where an exposition was held in 1901.
Amunatequi, Descubri miento y conquista de Chile (Santiago, 1885), a valuable detailed account of the Spanish conquest; by same author, Los Precursores de la independencia de Chile (Santiago, 1870), a clear useful description of the evils of the Spanish colonial system; Horacio Lara, Cronica de la Araucania (Santiago, 1889), a history of the Araucanian Indians right up to recent dates; Abbe Eyzaguirre, Histoire du Chili (Lille, 1855), mainly dealing with the position of the Church during the colonial period.
The more noteworthy are the old government house (now occupied by the school of mines), the legislative chambers, municipal hall and jail - all fronting on the Praga da Independencia - and elsewhere the old Casa dos Contos (afterwards the public treasury), a theatre (the oldest in Brazil, restored in 1861-1862) and a hospital.
The Independencia Park, formerly called Calvario Park, which occupies a hill on the west side of the city, is the largest and most attractive of the public gardens.