The character of the tax is accordingly much less odious than it would be if an account of individual incomes were invariably demanded, as was the case in the United States during the Civil War, when an income tax existed for a short time.
Moreover, the Liberal promises of economy had been largely falsified, the reductions in the navy estimates being dangerous in themselves, while the income tax still remained at practically the war level.
He suggested that the cost of these measures should be defrayed by extending the income tax to Ireland to industrial incomes of 100 and to permanent incomes of 50 a year, as well as by doubling the house tax, and extending it to all 10 householders.
I, 2) upon the power of the Federal government to lay direct taxes has been interpreted by the Supreme Court, by a bare majority, in such a way as to make very difficult, if not impossible, the imposition of an income tax (although, it may be added, such taxes had been unanimously held constitutional by the court in earlier decisions, which rested in turn upon interpretations of the constitutional provision just referred to given by the court when it counted among its members justices who had been members of the convention that framed the constitution).
Calculations, for instance, as to what people at the lower levels of the income tax must pay because they happen to be struck by every sort of tax as no other class is, and calculations as to the freedom from taxation of large numbers of other classes whose habits of consumption and living enable them to escape the tax-gatherer as the class to which they belong cannot generally do, may help a finance minister in the selection of taxes to be repealed or reduced or to be newly imposed.
Instead of allowing the income tax to expire, he induced parliament to continue it for a further period, and with the resources which were thus placed at his disposal he purged the tariff of various small duties which produced little revenue, and had been imposed for purposes of protection.
The incidence is probably much the same as that of the income tax itself, though there are curious questions as to the ultimate incidence as between owners and occupiers of houses.
Moreover, the development of its coal-mines and agriculture was vigorously prosecuted, and in 1910 it was found possible to abolish both the Income Tax and Land Tax and yet have a surplus in revenue.
In December of the same year this impost was repealed, and a true income tax of io per cent.
The revenue increased by leaps and bounds, and the income tax was gradually reduced till it stood at 4d.