After the nomination, the imperium of the dictator was confirmed by a lex curiata (see CoMITIA).
But apart from this amalgamation of the term with his regular name, and the private right to its use which that bestowed, every emperor had an additional and double right to the title on public grounds, possessed as he was of an imperium infinitum majus, and commanding as he did all the troops of the Empire.
These exceptions, introduced with a good object, had grown into a widespread evil by the 12th century, virtually creating an imperium in isnperio, and depriving the bishop of all authority over the chief centres of influence in his diocese.
In 18 B.C. Augustus's imperium was renewed for five years, and his tried friend Marcus Agrippa, now his son-in-law, was associated with him as a colleague.
But above all things the church was being criticized as an imperium in imperio, a privileged body not amenable to ordinary jurisdiction, and subservient to a foreign lordthe pope.
Its main function was that of passing the lex curiata which was necessary for the ratification both of the imperium of the higher magistracies of the people, and of the potestas of those of lower rank.
To restore the original commerce between man and nature, and to recover the imperium hominis, is the grand object of all science.
The work was often reprinted and is included in Dom Anselme Banduri's Imperium Orientale (Paris, 1711).
To emphasize the superiority of this imperium over that of the consuls, the dictator might be preceded by twenty-four lictors, not by the usual twelve; and, at least in the earlier period of the office, these lictors bore the axes, the symbols of life and death, within the city walls.
His imperium was renewed, again for five years, and in 12 B.C., on the death of his former fellow-triumvir Lepidus, he was elected Pontifex Maximus.