Professor Macoun gives us a few notable species - Calluna vulgaris, Salisb., Alchemilla vulgaris, L., Rhododendron maximum, L., Ilex glabia, Gray, Hudsonia ericoides, L., Gaylussacia dumosa, F.
When undisturbed by cultivation, the myrtle, arbutus, bay and ilex form a rich brushwood and the minor flora of the island is extensive.
Quercus Ilex - Holm-Oak.
Large tracts of Ilex paraguayensis, from which mate, or Paraguay-tea, is gathered, are found in this same region.
The characteristic cypress, ilex and stone-pine, however, are native trees, the last-named flourishing especially near the coast.
Among the more interesting plants of this deposit may be mentioned Torreya nucifera, now Japanese; an evergreen oak close to the common Quercus Ilex; Laurus canariensis, Apollonias canariensis, Persea carolinensis, and Ilex canariensis; Daphne pontica (a plant of Asia Minor); a species of box, scarcely differing from the English, and a bamboo.
The plants of which the floral organs or perfect fruits are preserved include the amber-bearing Pinus succinifera, Smilax, Phoenix, the spike of an aroid, i i species of oak, 2 of chestnut, a beech, Urticaceae, 2 cinnamons and Trianthera among the Lauraceae, representatives of the Cistaceae, Ternstroemiaceae, Dilleniaceae (3 species of Hibbertia), Geraniaceae (Geranium and Erodium), Oxalidaceae, Acer, Celastraceae, Olacaceae, Pittosporaceae, Ilex (2 species), Euphorbiaceae, Umbelliferae (Chaerophyllum), Saxifragaceae (3 genera), Hamamelidaceae, Rosaceae, Connaraceae, Ericaceae (Andromeda and Clethra), Myrsinaceae (3 species), Rubiaceae, Sambucus (2 species), Santalaceae, Loranthaceae (3 species).
Yerba mate, classified as Ilex paraguayensis, is a shrub.
The soil is very fertile; wheat, Indian corn, olives, vines, fruit trees of many kinds cover both the plain and the surrounding hills; the chief non-fruit-bearing trees are the stone pine, the cypress, the ilex and the poplar, while many other varieties are represented.
Scierophyllous Plants.These are plants with evergreen leathery ives, and typical of tropical, sub-tropical, and warm temperate gions; e.g., Quercus Suber, Ilex Aquifohium, Hedera Helix, Eucalyps Globulus, Rosmarinus officinalis.