They often cause a considerable hypertrophy of the tissue.
For this reason it is used to remove corneal opacities, deafness due to thickening of the membrane, stricture of the oesophagus and hypertrophy of the pylorus, it has also been successful in the treatment of adhesive parametritis.
Local hypertrophy may also be due to stimulation resulting from friction or intermittent pressure, as one may see in the thickenings on the skin of the artisan's hands.
A certain consequence of its use is to cause or increase cardiac hypertrophy - a condition which has its own dangers and ultimately disastrous consequences, and must never be provoked beyond the positive needs of the case.
Similarly with Anemone infested with Puccinia and Vacciniusn with Catyptospora, and many other cases of deformations due to hypertrophy or atrophy.
The swellings have been found to be due to a curious hypertrophy of the tissue of the part, the cells being filled with an immense number of minute bacterium-like organisms of V, X or Y shape.
Examples of physiological hypertrophy are found in the ovaries, uterus and mammary glands, where there is an increased functional activity required at the period of gestation.
Whilst absolutely contra-indicated in all cases of valvular disease, it is of value in cases of cardiac hypertrophy with over-action.
Internal causes of extinction are to be found in exaggeration of body size, in the hypertrophy or over-specialization of certain organs, in the irreversibility of evolution, and possibly, although this has not been demonstrated, in a progressive reduction of variability.
True hypertrophy is commonly found in the hollow muscular organs such as the heart, bladder and alimentary canal.