Referred to the asymptotes as axes the general equation becomes xy 2 obviously the axes are oblique in the general hyperbola and rectangular in the rectangular hyperbola.

If the second medium be more highly refractive than the first, the secondary caustic is a hyperbola having the same focus and centre as before, and the caustic is the evolute of this curve.

Thus the curve of the first order or right line consists of one branch; but in curves of the second order, or conics, the ellipse and the parabola consist each of one branch, the hyperbola of two branches.

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The definitions given above reflect the intimate association of these curves, but it frequently happens that a particular conic is defined by some special property (as the ellipse, which is the locus of a point such that the sum of its distances from two fixed points is constant); such definitions and other special properties are treated in the articles Ellipse, Hyperbola and Parabola.

It is to be remarked that the classification mixes together non-singular and singular curves, in fact, the five kinds presently referred to: thus the hyperbolas and the divergent parabolas include curves of every kind, the separation being made in the species; the hyperbolisms of the hyperbola and ellipse, and the trident curve, are nodal; the hyperbolisms of the parabola, and the cubical parabola, are cuspidal.

A solution by means of the parabola and hyperbola was given by Dionysodorus of Amisus (c. 1st century B.c), and a similar problem - to construct a segment equal in volume to a given segment, and in surface to another segment - was solved by the Arabian mathematician and astronomer, Al Kuhi.

When the conjugate axis of the hyperbola increases without limit, the loops of the nodoid are crowded on one another, and each becomes more nearly a ring of circular section, without, however, ever reaching this form.

But Landen's capital discovery is that of the theorem known by his name (obtained in its complete form in the memoir of 1775, and reproduced in the first volume of the Mathematical Memoirs) for the expression of the arc of an hyperbola in terms of two elliptic arcs.

If the law of attraction is that of gravitation, the orbit is a conic section - ellipse, parabola or hyperbola - having the centre of attraction in one of its foci; and the motion takes place in accordance with Kepler's laws (see Astronomy).

The hyperbola which has for its transverse and conjugate axes the transverse and conjugate axes of another hyperbola is said to be the conjugate hyperbola.