For the chemistry of copper and its compounds see the references in the article Chemistry: Inorganic. Toxicologic and hygienic aspects are treated in Tschirsch's Das Kupfer vom Standpunkt der gerichtlichen Chemie, Toxikologie and Hygiene (Stuttgart, 1893).
The modern system of hygiene is in great part founded upon Decent pathology.
Sanitation and public hygiene received a potent impulse from the cholera epidemic of 1884, many of the unhealthiest quarters in Naples and other cities being demolished and rebuilt, with funds chiefly furnished by the state.
There exists no branch of technical chemistry, hygiene or pharmacy from which the analytical chemist can be spared, since it is only by a continual development of his art that we can hope to be certain of the purity of any preparation.
The prefect supervises the execution of the laws; has wide authority in regard to policing, public hygiene and relief of pauper children; has the nomination of various subordinate officials; and is in correspondence with the subordinate functionaries in his department, to whom he transmits the orders and instructions of the government.
Pettenkofer gave vigorous expression to his views on hygiene and disease in numerous books and papers; he was an editor of the Zeitschrift far Biologie from 1865 to 1882, and of the Archiv far Hygiene from 1883 to 1894.
In 1789 his Observations sur les hopitaux procured him an appointment as administrator of hospitals in Paris, and in 1795 he became professor of hygiene at the medical school of Paris, a post which he exchanged for the chair of legal medicine and the history of medicine in 1799.
Finally, under the heads of administration, mine valuation, mining education, accidents, hygiene and mining law, will be discussed matters having important bearing on mining operations.
Comte pursued one practice which ought to be mentioned in connexion with his personal history, the practice of what he style hygiene cerebrale.
A state of war, actual or contingent, gives occasion to special developments of medical and surgical practice (military hygiene and military surgery).