The upper basin of the Benue was also traversed by the French expeditions of Mizon (1892) and Maistre (1892-1893), the latter passing to the south of the Tuburi marsh without definitely settling the hydrographical question connected with it.
Directly south are the beginnings of the meridional arteries, the Hab, the Purali and the Hingol, which end in the Arabian Sea, leaving a space of mountainous seaboard (Makran) south of the Panjgur and west of the Hingol, which is watered (so far as it is watered at all) by the long lateral Kej river and several smaller mountain streams. Thus southern Baluchistan comprises four hydrographical sections.
This tilt determines the hydrographical system.
The hydrographical survey may now be completed.
There too the hydrographical network, as well as the south-west to north-east strike of the clay-slates and metamorphic schists on Ditmar's map, seem to indicate the existence of two chains running south-west to north-east, parallel to the volcanic chain of S.-E.
On the whole, oceanographical research was being taken up most actively in Europe, but much important work was also begun in America, for instance the fine hydrographical research in the Pacific by the Scripps Institute of the university of California.
Beyond and south of the hydrographical area of the Jalawan highlands the rivers and streams of the hills either run in long straight lines to the Arabian Sea, north of Karachi, or, curving gradually westwards, they disappear in the inland swamps which form so prominent a feature in this part of south-west Asia.
This group of mountains, occupying what may be regarded as ethnologically the centre of Germany, forms a hydrographical centre, whence the Naab flows southward to the Danube, the Main westward to the Rhine, the Eger eastward to the Elbe, and the Saale northward, also into the Elbe.
The results are published in his Hydrographical Tables in a convenient form for use.
Their hydrographical conditions proves that neither of the the two lakes, Victoria (13,400 ft.) or Chakmaktin (13,020 ft.), can justly be regarded as sources, both of them being derived from the same mighty system of glacial snowfields on the summit of the Nicolas range.