Louis fought a battle beneath the walls of Zara (July ist, 1346), which has been immortalized by Tintoretto, but was defeated and compelled to abandon the city to the republic. The struggle was renewed eleven years later when Louis, having formed, with infinite trouble, a league of all the enemies of Venice, including the emperor, the Habsburgs, Genoa and other Italian towns, attacked his maritime rival with such vigour that she sued for peace, and by the treaty of Zara (February 18th, 1358) ceded most of the Dalmatian towns and renounced the title of duke of Dalmatia and Croatia, hitherto borne by the doge.
Thus the diocese, hitherto a simple unit, became an elaborately articulated whole.
In that way, mostly, the disastrous encounter between Ahab and the whale had hitherto been popularly regarded.
Under the regency of Prince Albert, Brunswick, which had hitherto steadily opposed all attempts to assimilate and subordinate its institutions to those of Prussia, though it retained formal independence, was brought into very close dependence upon Prussia, as is the case with all the other northern states.
By this act proportional representation was established for both chambers, together with universal manhood suffrage at elections for the Second Chamber, a reduction of the qualifications for eligibility for the First Chamber and a reduction of the electoral term of this chamber from nine to six years, and finally payment of members of the First Chamber, who hitherto had not received any such emolument.
Mus., 1893-1896) accepted Cope's principles, and mainly by .combining the Asinea of Stannius and Cope with the Proteroglypha as Colubridae - wherein he was followed by Cope, as mentioned above - and separating therefrom the Peropoda or Boidae, he has produced a logically-conceived system, by far the best hitherto proposed.
Industrial pursuits, except in a few seaport towns, which are rather French than Breton, hate hitherto received but little attention.
The Latin Church, which, by combining the tradition of the Roman centralized organization with a great elasticity in practice and in the interpretation of doctrine, had hitherto been the moulding force of civilization in the West, is henceforth more or less in antagonism to that civilization, which advances in all its branches - in science, in literature, in art - to a greater or less degree outside of and in spite of her, until in its ultimate and most characteristic developments it falls under the formal condemnation of the pope, formulated in the famous Syllabus of 1864.
Haeckel himself, with his pupil MikluchoMaclay, had in the meantime made studies on the growth from the egg of Sponges - studies which resulted in the complete separation of the unicellular or equicellular Protozoa from the Sponges, hitherto confounded with them.
Here the object of the insurgents was in most cases to break down the local oligarchy, who engrossed all municipal office and oppressed the meaner citizens; but in less numerous instances their end was to win charters from lords (almost always ecclesiastical lords) who had hitherto refused to grant them.