The celestial globe of Hipparchus still existed in the Alexandrian library in the time of Ptolemy, who himself refers to globes in his Almagest, as also in the Geography.
The author of the Hipparchus is evidently influenced by the anti-democratical tendencies in which he only followed Plato.
Eratosthenes (276-196 B.C.) used most probably a solstitial armilla for measuring the obliquity of the ecliptic. Hipparchus (160-125 B.C.) probably used an armillary sphere of four rings.
The question as between Solon and Hipparchus cannot be settled; but it is at least clear that a due order of recitation was secured by the presence of a person charged to give the rhapsodists their cue (uiro(iXXav).
The constellations bearing the same names coincided approximately in position, when Hipparchus observed them at Rhodes, with the divisions they designate.
A few latitudes had indeed been observed, but although Hipparchus had shown how longitudes could be determined by the observation of eclipses, this method was in reality not available for want of trustworthy time-keepers.
We may conclude the ancient history of the lunar theory by saying that the only real progress from Hipparchus to Newton consisted in the more exact determination of the mean motions of the moon, its perigee and its line of nodes, and in the discovery of three inequalities, the representation of which required geometrical constructions increasing in complexity with every step.
The choice made by Hipparchus of the geocentric theory of the universe decided the future of Greek astronomy.
It is an extraordinary fact that, if ostracism was introduced in 598 B.C. for the purpose of expelling Hipparchus it was not till twenty years later that he was condemned.
The credit of having returned to the scientific principles innovated by Eratosthenes and Hipparchus is due to Marinus of Tyre (c. A.D.