This epoch is marked by the renaissance of Sanskrit literature and the gradual revival of Hinduism at the expense of Buddhism.
The origin of this form of Hinduism is lost in antiquity, but it is probable that it represents a pre-Aryan religion, more or less modified in various parts of south India by Brahmanical influence.
Robson, Hinduism and Christianity (Edinburgh and London, 3rd ed., 1905); J.
His views were further defined in Christianity and Hinduism (Cambridge, 1856), an expansion of the Muir prize essay which he had won in 1848.
The transition from this crude form of religion to popular Hinduism is comparatively easy.
In Hinduism the various implements of sacrifice are similarly personified and worshipped, especially the sacrificial post to which the victim is bound, and which, under the name of vanaspall and svaru, is deified and invoked.
But the ancient Buddhism, the party of reform, was overwhelmed also in its fall; and modern Hinduism arose on the ruins of both.
Cool, With the Dutch in the East (Amsterdam and London, 1897), in Dutch and English, is a narrative of the events sketched above, and contains many particulars about the folklore and dual religions of Lombok, which, with Bali, forms the last stronghold of Hinduism east of Java.
Murray Mitchell, Hinduism Past and Present (2nd ed., London, 1897); Jogendra Nath Bhattacharya, Hindu Castes and Sects (Calcutta, 1896); A.
A counter reformation can also be traced which attempts to revive Hinduism by purging it of its grossness and allegorizing its fables and legends.