Maildulphus, a Scottish or Irish monk, who came into England about 635, built a hermitage near the site of the modern Malmesbury (Maildulphi-urbs, Maldelmesburh, Malmesbiri) and gathered disciples round him, thus forming the nucleus of the later abbey of which Aldhelm his pupil became the first abbot.
A fine belfry (12th, 13th and 15th centuries) commanding the town is built on the terrace, beneath which are hollowed in the rock the oratory and hermitage of St Emilion, and adjoining them an ancient monolithic church of considerable dimensions.
By 1342 Roxburgh, Stirling and Edinburgh castles were again in Scottish hands, though the Knight of Liddesdale captured and starved to death, in Hermitage castle, his gallant companion in arms, Sir Alexander Ramsay, who had relieved the garrison of Dunbar.
At any rate, Rousseau quitted the Hermitage in the winter of 1757-58, and established himself at Montlouis in the neighbourhood.
Near the town is a curious ancient hermitage cave, in the sandstone.
It may be regarded as certain that St Giles was buried in the hermitage which he had founded in a spot which was afterwards the town of StGilles (diocese of Nimes, department of Gard).
In the gallant discharge of its duties he was dangerously wounded by a leading outlaw, whom he slew in single combat; and while yet confined to Hermitage Castle he received a visit of two hours from the queen, who rode thither from Jedburgh and back through 20 miles of the wild borderland where her person was in perpetual danger from the freebooters whom her father's policy had striven and had failed to extirpate.
To the south of Lyons, in the department of the Drome, are made in the district of Valence the celebrated Hermitage red and white Hermitage.
Two miles to the east in a ravine below Monte Subasio is the hermitage delle Carceri (2300 ft.), partly built, partly cut out of the solid rock, given to St Francis by Benedictine monks as a place of retirement.
In 1434 he retired to the hermitage of Ripaille on the Lake of Geneva, but continued to conduct the chief affairs of the state and to mediate between foreign Powers, leaving matters of less importance to his son Louis.