He frequently assisted Philip in conducting negotiations with foreign powers, and he was an arbiter in tournaments and on all questions of chivalry, where his wide knowledge of heraldry was highly useful.
These latter crowns form charges in English heraldry (see Heraldry).
This comes from the usage in heraldry (first in French) for the colour equivalent to black, represented conventionally by a crosshatching of vertical and horizontal lines.
The use of the fleur-de-lis in heraldry dates from the 12th century, soon after which period it became a very common charge in France, England and Germany, where every gentleman of coat-armour desired to adorn his shield Middle Ages.
P. PureyCust, York Minster (1897), Heraldry of York Minster (Leeds, 1890); B.
On the Continent the distinction which is commonly but incorrectly made between the nobility and the gentry has never arisen, and it was unknown here while chivalry existed and heraldry was understood.
Genealogy, heraldry and chronology run parallel with the wider subject.
He made a special hobby of heraldry and genealogy.