On the 24th of December Saxon and Hanoverian troops occupied Holstein in the name of the German Confederation, and supported by their presence and the favor of the population the prince of Augustenburg, as Duke Frederick VIII., assumed the government.
William gave way, but similar Hanoverian demands later caused great searchings of heart and divisions among the preachers.
His father, Ferdinand, was a teacher of philology and philosophy in the gymnasium, while his mother was a Hanoverian lady, a lineal descendant of the great Quaker William Penn.
On the death of Anne in 1714, George, elector of Hanover, eldest son of Sophia (youngest child of the princess Elizabeth), and Ernest, elector of Brunswick-Luneburg, or Hanover, consequently became sovereign of Great Britain and Ireland, and, notwithstanding somewhat formidable attempts in behalf of the elder Stuart line in 1715 and 1745, the Hanoverian succession has remained uninterrupted and has ultimately won universal assent.
In 1701 Toland spent a few weeks at Hanover as secretary to the embassy of the earl of Macclesfield, and was received with favour by the electress Sophia in acknowledgment of his book Anglia Libera, a defence of the Hanoverian succession.
In 1823 he had been made secretary of the archives, and in 1827 principal keeper of the royal library at Hanover; from 1832 to 1837 he edited the Hannoverische Zeitung, and more than once sat as a representative in the Hanoverian second chamber.
The marriage of the duke of Cumberland (the title by which the king called himself till he could come into his possessions) with Princess Thyra of Denmark in the same year was made the occasion of a great demonstration, at which a deputation of the Hanoverian nobility assured the duke of their continued attachment to his house.
He had supported by turns and simultaneously Jacobite and Hanoverian interests.
At his uncle's desire he rejected the Hanoverian for the Danish service, and in 1759 took his seat in the German chancery at Copenhagen.
The most brilliant episode of the battle was the entire defeat of the French cavalry by the British infantry (with whom there were some Hanoverian troops); but Minden, though it is one of the brightest days in the history of the British army, has its dark side also, for the British cavalry commander Lord George Sackville (see Sackville, Viscount) refused to obey the order to advance, several times sent by Duke Ferdinand, and thereby robbed the victory of the decisive results which were to be expected from the success of the infantry.