To 1 First described by the Turk, Haj j i Khalifa, in the 37th century; first seen by the Swedish traveller Otter in 1736, and first published in 1840 in Ritter's Erdkunde, iii., after a drawing by Major Fischer, made in 1837.
The Yemen pilgrim route, known as the Haj el Kabsi, led from Sada through Asir to Tail and Mecca, but it is no longer used.
Besides giving to the world the first accurate description of the holy city and the Haj ceremonies, he was the first to fix the position of Mecca by astronomical observations, and to describe the physical character of its surroundings.
Travelling down from Damascus in 1875 with the Haj caravan, he stopped at El Hajr, one of the pilgrim stations, with the intention of awaiting the return of the caravan and in the meantime of exploring the rock-cut tombs of Medain Salih and El Ala.
These tracts are known as harra; the most remarkable is the Harrat El Awerid, west of the Haj route from Tebuk to El Ala, a mountain mass 100 m.
Gaulanitis (which probably derived its name from the city of refuge, Golan, the site of which has not yet been discovered) is represented by the modern Jaulan, a province extending from the Jordan lakes to the Haj Road.
Revisiting Jerusalem and Cairo he made the haj a fourth time, and finally reappeared at Fez (visiting Sardinia en route) on the 8th of November 1349, after twenty-four years' absence.
After visiting other parts of the gulf he crossed the breadth of Arabia to Mecca, making the haj for the third time.
After an excursion to Mosul and Diarbekr, he made the haj a second time, staying at Mecca three years.