To Haggai the temple appears so essential that he teaches that while it lay waste, the people and all their works and offerings were unclean (Hag.
Nehemiah naturally gives us only his version, and the attitude of Haggai and Zechariah to Zerubbabel may illustrate the feeling of his partisans.
Greater weight must be laid upon the independent evidence of the prophetical writings, and the objection that Palestine could not have produced the religious fervency of Haggai or Zechariah without an initial impulse from Babylonia begs the question.
Ben Sira indeed in his list of worthies mentions Zerubbabel, Joshua and Nehemiah; but Zerubbabel and Joshua he must have known from the books of Haggai and Zechariah, and he may well have been acquainted with that document relating to Nehemiah which the Chronicler incorporated with his book.
To this consummation, with its necessary accompaniment in the extinction of prophecy, the book of Haggai already points.
At an earlier date the prophet Haggai had taught that the people could not expect Yahweh's blessing while the Temple lay in ruins.
Reinke's Commentary (Munster, 1868) is the work of a scholarly Roman Catholic. Haggai has generally been treated in works on all the prophets, as by Ewald (2nd ed., 1868; Eng.
The book of Haggai contains four short prophecies delivered between the first day of the sixth month and the twenty-fourth day of the ninth month - that is, between September and December - of the second year of Darius the king.
It is sometimes levied as a reproach against Haggai that he makes no direct reference to moral duties.
On the place of Haggai in the history of Old Testament prophecy, see Duhm, Theologie der Propheten (Bonn, 18 75); A.