The chief lakes are: Lake Ladoga, of which the northern half belongs to Finland; Saima (three and a half times larger than Lake Leman), whose outlet, the Vuoksen, flows into Lake Ladoga, forming the mighty Imatra rapids, while the lake itself is connected by means of a sluiced canal with the Gulf of Finland; the basins of Pyha-selka, Ori-vesi and Piellis-jarvi; Pajane, surrounded by hundreds of smaller lakes, and the waters of which are discharged into the lower gulf through the Kymmene river; Nasi-jarvi and Pyha-jarvi, whose outflow is the Kumo-elf, flowing into the Gulf of Bothnia; Ulea-trask, discharged by the Ulea into the same gulf; and Enare, belonging to the basin of the Arctic Ocean.
This last-named river is navigable from the Gulf of Tongking to Man-hao, a town ten days' journey from Yun-nan Fu.
For some way beyond the only seaport is Bosa, which has only an open roadstead; and at the southern extremity of the Nurra come the Gulf of Alghero and the Porto Conte to the W., the latter a fine natural harbour but not easy of ingress or egress.
Darien Harbour, formed by the Tuira and Savannah rivers, is a part of the Gulf of San Miguel and is 11 m.
It is found (1) on the Atlantic coastal plain, where it laps up on the Comanchean, or over it to older formations beyond its inland margin; (2) on the coastal plain of the Gulf region in similar relations; (3) over the western plains; (4) in the western mountains; and (5) along the Pacific coast.
To the point of union with the Euphrates at Garmat Ali, whence it is known as the Shatt-el-Arab until it empties into the Persian Gulf some 70 m.
The temperatures at the head of the Persian Gulf approximate to those of northern India, and those of Aden to Madras.
The Barcoo or Cooper's Creek and its tributary streams were traced from the Queensland mountains, holding a south-westerly course to Lake Eyre in South Australia; the Flinders, the Gilbert, the Gregory, and other northern rivers watering the country towards the Gulf of Carpentaria were also explored.
The incline is uniformly to the south-east, and apart from the few coast streams that reach the Gulf of Aden during the rains, all the running waters are collected in three rivers - the Nogal in the north, the Webi Shebeli in the centre, and the Juba (q.v.) I See also Abyssinia.
Long, which receives the waters of the Rio Conchas, and is separated in places from the Gulf by only a narrow ridge of sand dunes.