The young Jonathan was educated mainly at the charges of his uncle Godwin, a Tipperary official, who was thought to dole out his help in a somewhat grudging manner.
The new practice was received at first with contempt and even ridicule, and afterwards by Stoll and Peter Frank with only grudging approval.
As the Commons offered grudging supplies, the necessity under which he was of filling up the annual deficit led him to an action by which a grave constitutional question was raised.
In the circumstances, Nicholas was forced to give a grudging recognition to the title of Louis Philippe as king of the French; his recognition of that of Leopold, king of the Belgians, was postponed until King William of the Netherlands had finally resigned his rights.
In 1859 the Danubian principalities, deliberately left separate by the Congress of Paris, carried out their long-cherished design of union by electing Prince Cuza both in Moldavia and in Walachia, a contingency which the powers had not taken into account, and to which in the end they gave a grudging assent (see Rumania).