The following are some of the most famous diamonds of the world: - A large stone found in the Golconda mines and said to have weighed 787 carats in the rough, before being cut by a Venetian lapidary, was seen in the treasury of Aurangzeb in 1665 by Tavernier, who estimated its weight after cutting as 280 (?) carats, and described it as a rounded rose-cut-stone, tall on one side.
The fort is supposed to have been built by the Golconda sultans; it stands on a hill 500 ft.
It is believed that the far-famed diamonds of Golconda actually came from the sandstone formation which extends across the south-east borders of the nizam's dominions into the Madras districts of Ganjam and Godavari.
The name of Golconda has passed into literature; but that city, once the Mussulman capital of the Deccan, was rather the home of diamond-cutters than the source of supply.
In 1686 the city of Bijapur was taken by Aurangzeb in person, and in the following year Golconda also fell.
The mines of Golconda and Kurnool were described as early as 1677 in the twelfth volume of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.
In the struggles which ensued, the Hindu kingdom of Telingana fell bit by bit to the Bahmani dynasty, who advanced their frontier to Golconda in 1373, to Warangal in 1421, and to the Bay of Bengal in 1472.
Ahmednagar was incorporated in the Mogul empire in 1598, Bijapur in 1686, and Golconda in 1688.