The first disputes about the jurisdiction of the clergy were moved by Gudmund in the 13th century, bringing on a civil war, while the questions of patronage and rights over glebe and mortmainland occupied Bishop Arni and his adversaries fifty years afterwards, when the land was under Norwegian viceroys and Norwegian law.
We shall not be astonished to find, therefore, in the Hellenistic states of Asia a population of peasants who seem to have been in a condition of hereditary subjection and adherent to the glebe on the great estates of the Seleucid kings (see Rostowtzew in Lehmann's Beitrdge zur alten Geschichte, ii.).
Yanoski, De l'abolition de l'esclavage ancien au moyen age et de sa transformation en servitude de la glebe (Wallon and Yanoski had jointly composed a memoir to compete for a prize offered by the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences in 1837; Wallon's portion of the memoir became the foundation of his Histoire de l'esclavage dans l'antiquite above mentioned; Yanoski's part, the expansion of which was prevented by his early death, was posthumously published in 1860; it is no more than a slight sketch); Benjamin Gubrard, Prolegomenes au Polyptyque d'Irminon (1844); Fustel de Coulanges, Histoire des institutions politiques de l'ancienne France (2nd ed., 1877), and Recherches sur quelques problemes d'histoire (1885) (the latter work contains an admirable discussion of the whole subject of the colonatus, founded throughout on the original texts); Stubbs, Constitutional History of England (3 vols., 1874-1878).
They were not payable of the following, except by custom: things of the substance of the earth, such as coals, minerals, turf and the like; things ferae naturae, such as fish, deer and the like; things tame, such as fowls, hounds or fish kept for pleasure or curiosity; barren land, until it is converted into arable or meadow land, and has been so for seven years; forest land, if in the hands of the king or his lessee, unless disafforested; a park which is disparked; or glebe land in the hands of the parson or vicar, which was mutually exempted from payment by the one to the other, but not if in the hands of the vicar's lessee.
Most of the land is freehold and cultivated by the owner himself, and comparatively little land is let on lease except very large holdings and glebe farms. The independent small farmer (bonder) maintains a hereditary attachment to his ancestral holding.
One-half of the town is glebe belonging to the rectory.
An Act of Assembly of 1753 declares pactions simoniacal whereby a minister or probationer before presentation and as a means of obtaining it bargains not to raise a process of augmentation of stipend or demand reparation or enlargement of his manse or glebe after induction.
Though gradually shorn of much of its old importance, the heritors' meeting retained the power of imposing an assessment for the purpose of providing and maintaining a church and church - yard and a manse and glebe for the minister.