There are four kinds of soil in Northern Europe: glacial till, alluvial, loess and geest.
The effect of the Glacial epoch in Europe is shown in northern Africa by the moraines of the higher Atlas, and the wider extension of the glaciers on Kilimanjaro, Kenya and Ruwenzori, and by the extensive accumulations of gravel over the Sahara.
Haitinger, Monats., 1882, 3, p. 228); and by boiling succinic dialdehyde with ammonia and glacial acetic acid (C. Harries, Ber., 1901, 34, p. 1 497).
Several thousand lakes of clear water, formed by glacial action, dot the surface of the state, and many of them are lined with picturesque woodland shores.
In the west the Quaternary deposits are not, in all cases, sharply separated from the late Tertiary, but the deposits of glacial drift, referable to two or more glacial epochs, are readily differentiated from the Tertiary; so, also, are certain lacustrine deposits, such as those of the extinct lakes Bonneville and Lahontan.
In earlier literature the Lafayette formation was described under the name of Orange Sand, and was at one time thought to be the southern equivalent of the glacial drift.
The age of the glacial deposits is later than the Glossopteris flora and occurs early in the time of the Gangamopteris flora.
The glacial drift east of the Missouri river, unlike that of the New England states, is remarkably free from boulders and gravel, except in a few morainic belts.
It seems likely that it was separated from the British region shortly before the glacial epoch, and that some of the ice which then abutted on the country travelled across shallow seas.
The floor of the Basin Region is formed of alluvium washed from the high plateaus and mountain ranges, a part of which has accumulated in alluvial fans, and part in the greatly expanded lakes which existed here in the glacial period.