General geography was divided into - (I) the Absolute part, dealing with the form, dimensions, position and substance of the earth, the distribution of land and water, mountains, woods and deserts, hydrography (including all the waters of the earth) and the atmosphere; (2) the Relative part, including the celestial properties, i.e.
The geography of Ptolemy was also known and is constantly referred to by Arab writers.
Davis, Physical Geography (Boston, 1899).
The camel, the horse and the donkey are the draught animals; the flesh of the first Geology and Geography of Arabia Petraea, Palestine and adjoining Districts (London, 1886).
The Visconde de Santarem, and Judice Biker in geography and diplomatics, produced standard works; Luz Soriano compiled painstaking histories of the reign of King Joseph and of the Peninsular War; Silvestre Ribeiro printed a learned account of the scientific, literary and artistic establishments of Portugal, and Lieut.-Colonel Christovam Ayres was the author of a history of the Portuguese army.
Of Stanfords Compendium of Geography and Travel (London, 1899 and 1900).
Scientific geography profited largely from the labours of Eratosthenes of Cyrene, whom Ptolemy Euergetes appointed The gnomon was known to the Chinese in the 5th century B.C., and reached the Greeks (Anaximander) through Babylon.
This was the central theme of Ritter's philosophy; his religion and his geography were one, and the consequent fervour with which he pursued his mission goes far to account for the immense influence he acquired in Germany.
In 1675 appeared his Notitia Galliarum ordine litterarum digesta, a work of the highest merit, which laid the foundations of the scientific study of historical geography in France; but, like all the scholars of his age, he had no solid knowledge of philology.
Subdivided plant geography into floristic plant geography and ecological plant geography.