This explanation of the action of the solid is equivalent to that by which Gauss afterwards supplied the defect of the theory of Laplace, except that, not being expressed in terms of mathematical symbols, it does not indicate the mathematical relation between the attraction of individual particles and the final result.

This observation applies in particular to the general theory of the meteorology of the South Polar area, as expounded for the Gauss expedition by Prof. Meinardus and for Scott's last expedition by Dr. G.

It may be assumed that the planes I' and II' are drawn where the images of the planes I and II are formed by rays near the axis by the ordinary Gaussian rules; and by an extension of these rules, not, however, corresponding to reality, the Gauss image point 0', with co-ordinates 'o, of the point 0 at some distance from the axis could be constructed.

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The device known as the method of least squares, for reducing numerous equations of condition to the number of unknown quantities to be determined, had been adopted as a practically convenient rule by Gauss and Legendre; but Laplace first treated it as a problem in probabilities, and proved by an intricate and difficult course of reasoning that it was also the most advantageous, the mean of the probabilities of error in the determination of the elements being thereby reduced to a minimum.

They were invented by Gauss to facilitate the computation of elliptic integrals.

The images of the Gauss theory being of the third order, the next problem is to obtain an image of 5th order, or to make the coefficients of the powers of 3rd degree zero.

In 1801 Gauss published his Disquisitiones arithmeticae, which, although written in an obscure form, gave a new impetus to investigations on this and kindred subjects.

Faraday's discovery of the induced current produced by passing a magnet through a helix of wire forming part of a closed circuit was laid hold of in the telegraph of Gauss and Weber, and this application was at the request of Gauss taken up by Steinheil, who brought it to considerable perfection.

KARL FRIEDRICH GAUSS (1777-1855), German mathematician, was born of humble parents at Brunswick on the 30th of April 1777, and was indebted for a liberal education to the notice which his talents procured him from the reigning duke.

To Gauss is due the establishment of the important theorem, that the product of two determinants both of the second and third orders is a determinant.