The brachiopods, generally classed collectively as Spirifer mucronatus, follow at least five distinct lines of evolution in the Middle Devonian of North America, while more than twenty divergent lines have been observed by Grabau among the species of the gastropod genus Fusus in Tertiary and recent times.
It is rare for the gill-plume of a Pectinibranch Gastropod to stand out freely as a plume, but occasionally this more archaic condition is exhibited as in Valvata (fig.
As in all such introand e-versible organs, eversion of the Gastropod proboscis is effected by pressure communicated by the muscular body-wall to the liquid contents (blood) of the body-space, accompanied by the relaxation of the muscles which directly pull upon either the sides or the apex of the tubular organ.
The problem of the causes of the torsion of the Gastropod body has been much discussed.
Al, alimentary canal; at d, the jaws; at a, the mouth; therefore a to d is stomodaeum, whereas in the Gastropod (F) a to d is inverted body-surface.
It occurs immature in the gastropod Nassa.
M, Mouth; f, foot; v, velar area, the margin v corresponding with the ciliated band which demarcates the velar area or velum of the embryo Gastropod (see fig.
Walcott has described a tiny lamellibranch (Modioloides) from the inferior Cambrian, and he reports the gastropod (?) genus Chuaria from the preCambrian.
In a dextral Gastropod the shell is coiled in a right-handed spiral from apex to mouth, and the spiral also projects to the right of the median plane of the animal.
According to Spengel, the pair of ganglia near the mouth, variously called labial or cerebral, represent the cerebral pair and pleural pair of a gastropod combined, and the parietosplanchnic pair correspond to the visceral ganglia, the commissure which connects them with the cerebro-pleural representing the visceral commissure.