Decompose the liquid hydrocarbon in the presence of the diluents which are to mingle with it and act as its carrier, since, if this were done, a higher temperature could be employed and more of the heavier portions of the oil converted into gas, without at the same time breaking down the gaseous hydrocarbons too much.
In terms of the molecular theory this indicates that the total energy of the gas is the sum of the separate energies of its different molecules: the potential energy arising from intermolecular forces between pairs of molecules may be treated as negligible when the matter is in the gaseous state.
These differ in that comets are visible either in a telescope or to the naked eye, and seem to be either wholly or partially of a nebulous or gaseous character, while meteors are, individually at least, invisible to us except as they become incandescent by striking the atmosphere of the earth.
Meanwhile the astronomical theories of development of the solar system from a gaseous condition to its present form, put forward by Kant and by Laplace, had impressed men's minds with the conception of a general movement of spontaneous progress or development in all nature.
Priestley in 1772 was the first to isolate it in the gaseous condition, and Sir H.
Clausius, to such an extent as to put its general accuracy beyond a doubt; but it received enormous developments from Maxwell, who in this field appeared as an experimenter (on the laws of gaseous friction) as well as a mathematician.
Enclosing the photosphere is a truly gaseous envelope which is called the chromosphere, and which shows a spectrum of bright lines when we can isolate its emission from that of the photosphere.
Some of these pass into their elements with explosive violence, owing to the heat generated by their decomposition and the gaseous nature of the products.
Clausius (1850), applying the same assumption, deduced the same value of F'(t), and showed that it was consistent with the mechanical theory and Joule's experiments, but required that a vapour like steam should deviate more considerably from the gaseous laws than was at that time generally admitted.
The interpretation of the phenomena of gaseous conduction was rendered possible by the knowledge previously acquired of conduction through liquids; the newer subject is now reaching a position whence it can repay its debt to the older.