We must, however, agree with Starkie Gardner that it is only Miocene as regards its present position, which was originally farther north, and that its actual origin was much earlier.
These also, like the lignites of Bovey Tracey, have been referred to the Miocene period, on the supposed evidence of the plants; but more recent discoveries by Gardner tend tb throw doubt on this allocation, and suggest that, though of various ages, the first-formed of these deposits may date back to early Eocene times.
PERCY GARDNER (1846-), English classical archaeologist, was born in London, and was educated at the City of London school and Christ's College, Cambridge (fellow, 1872).
His chief publications are his translation of the History of Herodotus (in collaboration with Sir Henry Rawlinson and Sir Gardner Wilkinson), 1858-60; The Five Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World, 1862-67; The Sixth Great Oriental Monarchy (Parthian), 1873; The Seventh Great Oriental Monarchy (Sassanian), 1875; Manual of Ancient History, 1869; Historical Illustrations of the Old Testament, 1871; The Origin of Nations, 1877; History of Ancient Egypt, 1881; Egypt and Babylon, 1885; History of Phoenicia, 1889; Parthia, 1893; Memoir of Major-General Sir H.
Lund (1827-1830, and 1830 to 1880, the year of his death), George Gardner (1836-1841), A.
The lignite deposits and pipe-clays of Bovey Tracey in Devon, referred by Heer and Pengelly to the Miocene period, were considered by Gardner to be of the same age as the Bournemouth beds (Middle Eocene).
Their names are Phoenix, Gardner (Kemin), Hull, Sydney, Birnie, Enderbury, Canton (Mary) and McKean.
The floras which it chiefly resembles are first, that of Monte Bolca, and second, that of the Gres du Soissonais, which latter Gardner thinks may be of the same age, and not earlier, as is generally supposed.
Rawlinson, assisted in the copious notes and appendices accompanying the work by Sir Gardner Wilkinson and Sir Henry Rawlinson.
Such scholars as Lepsius, Brugsch, de Rouge, Lenormant, Birch, Mariette, Maspero and Erman have perfected the studies of Young and Champollion; while at the same time these and a considerable company of other explorers, most notable of whom are Gardner Wilkinson and Professor Flinders Petrie, have brought to light a vast accumulation of new material, much of which has the highest importance from the standpoint of the historian.