An excellent harbour, sheltered against pirates, it became almost at once a competitor for the commerce of the Baltic. Its foundation coincided with the beginning of the advance of the Low German tribes of Flanders, Friesland and Westphalia along the southern shores of the Baltic - the second great emigration of the colonizing Saxon element.
In the island of Juist, off the Friesland coast, from three weeks' observations they obtained only 5.2 as the mean.
Schipperns (Haarlem, 1888); Friesland Meres and through the Netherlands, by H.
He was apparently much in East Friesland till 1541; in North Holland, with Amsterdam as centre, from 1541 to 1543; again till '545 in East Friesland (where he held a disputation at Emden with John a Lasco in January 1 544); till 1547 in South Holland; next, about Lubeck; at Wismar in1553-1554(he held two disputations with Martin Micronius at Norden in February 1 554); lastly at Wustenfelde, a village near Oldesloo, between Hamburg and Lubeck, where he died on the 13th of January 1 559.
It was separated from the sea by a belt of marsh and fen uniting Friesland and North Holland, the original coast-line being still indicated by the line of the Frisian Islands.
In 834 vasions Utrecht and Dorestad were sacked, and a few years of the later all Holland and Friesland was in their hands.
This island is joined to the mainland of Friesland by a stone dike constructed in 1873 for the purpose of promoting the deposit of mud.
Sea-aster flourishes in the Wadden of Friesland and Groningen, the Dollart and the Zeeland estuaries, giving place nearer the shore to sandspurry (Spergularia), or sea-poa or floating meadow grass (Glyceria maritima), which grows up to the dikes, and affords pasture for cattle and sheep. Along the coast of Overysel and in the Biesbosch lake club-rush, or scirpus, is planted in considerable quantities for the hat-making industry, and common sea-wrack (Zostera marina) is found in large patches in the northern half of the Zuider Zee, where it is gathered for trade purposes during the months of June, July and August.
Emden (Emuden, Emetha) is first mentioned in the 12th century, when it was the capital of the Eemsgo (Ernsgau, or county of the Ems), one of the three hereditary countships into which East Friesland had been divided by the emperor.
Philologie ii, p. 623 ff.); Ubbo Emmius, Rerum Frisicarum historic (Leiden, 1616); Pirius Winsemius, Chronique van Vriesland (Franoker, 1822); C. Scotanus, Beschryvinge end Chronyck van des Heerlickheydt van Frieslandt (1655); Groot Placaat en Charter-boek van Friesland (ed.