Manoel de Portugal, Pero de Andrade Caminha, Diogo Bernardes, Frei Agostinho da Cruz and Andre Falcao de Resende continued the erudite school, which, after considerable opposition, definitely triumphed in the person of Luiz de Camoens.
Francisco Alexandre Lobo, bishop of Vizeu, whose essays on Camoens and other authors show sound critical sense and a correct style, Cardinal Saraiva, an expert on ancient and modern history and the voyages of his countrymen, and Frei Fortunato de S.
He chose his subjects from the national history, and began with the Auto de Gil Vicente, in which he resuscitated the founder of the theatre, and followed this up with other prose plays, among which the Alfageme de Santarem takes the palm; finally he crowned his labours by Frei Luiz de Sousa, a tragedy of fatality and pathos and one 'of the really notable pieces of the century.
The last also wrote an Historia da Ethiopia, and, though the travel literature of this century compares badly with that of the preceding, mention may be made of the Itinerario da India por terra ate' a ilha de Chipre of Frei Gaspar de S.
Of the four continuers of Brito's work, three are no better than their master, but Frei Antonio Brandao, who dealt with the period from King Alphonso Henriques to King John II., proved himself a man of high intelligence and a learned, conscientious historian.
Among them were the ecclesiastical historian Frei Manoel do Cenaculo, bishop of Beja, the polygraph Ribeiro dos Santos, Caetano do Amaral, a patient investigator of the origins of Portugal, Joao Pedro Riberio, the founder of modern historical studies, D.
Among other historical works dealing with the East are the Commentarios de Affonso d'Albuquerque, an account of the life of the great captain and administrator, by his natural son, and the Tratado das cousas da China e de Ormuz, by Frei Gaspar da Cruz.
The important part taken by Portuguese prelates and theologians at the Council of Trent stimulated religious writing, most of it in Latin, but Frei Bartholomeu dos Martyres, archbishop of Braga, wrote a Cathecismo da doutrina Christa, Frei Luiz de Granada a Compendio de Doutrina Christa and Sermoes, all in Portuguese, and other notable pulpit orators include Diogo de Paiva de Andrade, Padre Luiz Alvares, Dom Antonio Pinheiro and Frei Miguel dos Santos, who preached at the obsequies of King Sebastian.
They include, to quote, the more noteworthy, the Descobrimento de Frolida, the Itinerario of Antonio Tenreiro, the Verdadeira informacao das terras do Preste Joao by Francisco Alvares,'and the Ethiopia oriental by Frei Joao dos Santos, both dealing with Abyssinia, the Itinerario da terra santa by Frei Pantaleao de Aveiro, and that much-translated classic, the Historia da vida do padre Francisco Xavier by Padre Joao de Lucena.
In the work of improving the city, the national government assumed the expense of the commercial quays, the filling of the Sao Christovao bay, the opening of the Mangue canal and its embellishment, the opening of the Avenida Central, the extension of the sewage system and the addition of new sources to the water supply, while the city was responsible for the Avenida Beira-Mar, the opening of a new avenue from the Largo da Lapa westward to Rua Frei Caneca, the removal of the Morro do Senado, the widening of some streets crossing the Avenida Central and the opening and straightening of other streets.