In 1276 the Pisans were compelled to agree to very grievous terms - to exempt Florentine merchandise from all harbour dues, to yield certain strongholds to Lucca, and to permit the return of Count Ugolino, whose houses they had burnt, and whose lands they had confiscated.
It contains nearly io,000 MSS., including many magnificent illuminated missals and Bibles and a number of valuable Greek and Latin texts, 242 incunabula and 11,000 printed books, chiefly dealing with palaeography; it is in some ways the most important of the Florentine libraries.
It contains incomparable studies of the Florentine housewife and her husband, a grave business-like citizen, who falls into the senile folly of a base intrigue.
In 1437 Florence and Venice were again at war with the Visconti, whose chief captain, Niccolo Piccinino, on entering Tuscany with many Florentine exiles in his train, was signally defeated at Anghiari by the Florentines under Francesco Sforza (1440); peace was made the following year.
The cathedral built by Bartolommeo Ammanati (1S70), modified by Ippolito Scalza, and completed in 1680 (with the exception of the facade, which is still unfinished) contains a large altar-piece by Taddeo di Bartolo of Siena, and the fragments of an imposing monument erected in1427-1436by the Florentine architect Michelozzo in honour of Bartolommeo Aragazzi, secretary of Pope Martin V., which was taken down in the 18th century.
And, although that monarch was ostensibly the friend of Florence, they did not hesitate, even in his presence, to assert their own independence, and, casting the Florentine ensign, the Marzocco, into the Arno, made instant preparations for war.
Ill-health now gained on Lorenzo, and Savonarola, whom he had summoned to his bedside, refused to give absolution to the destroyer of Florentine liberties.
The most striking of these are the palaces of Duke Max and of Prince Luitpold; the Odeon, a large building for concerts, adorned with frescoes and marble busts; the war office; the royal library, in the Florentine palatial style; the Ludwigskirche, a successful reproduction of the Italian Romanesque style, built in 1829-1844, and containing a huge fresco of the Last Judgment by Cornelius; the blind asylum; and, lastly, the university.
The republic entrusted the work to the Florentine Verrocchio, who dying before the statue was completed begged the government to allow his pupil Lorenzo di Credi to carry it to a conclusion.
In this same year Henry of Luxemburg was elected king of the Romans and with the pope's favour he came to Italy in 1310; the Florentine exiles and all the Ghibellines of Italy regarded him as a saviour and regenerator of the country, while the Guelphs of Florence on the contrary opposed New both him and the pope as dangerous to their own liberties and accepted the protection of King Robert of Naples, disregarding Henry's summons to submission.