A still more lengthy and unfortunate suit was the attempt of Philip the Fair and his successors to incorporate the Flemish fief like the English one (1300-1326), thus coming Philip the into conflict with proud and turbulent republics;:, composed of wool and cloth merchants, weavers, fullers and powerful counts.
In 1339 and 1340 Edward endeavoured to invade France from the north with the help of his German and Flemish allies, but the only result of his campaigns was to reduce him to bankruptcy.
The Bretons, who most nearly represent the Celts, and the Basques, who inhabit parts of the western versant of the Pyrenees, have preserved their distinctive languages and customs, and are ethnically the most interesting sections of the nation; the Flemings of French Flanders where Flemish is still spoken are also racially distinct.
The old town is composed of winding streets and culs-de-sac bordered by old houses in the Flemish style.
By a Flemish mother, and like the other women of the House a strong and capable ruler.
A closer investigation of the numerous long, narrow banks which lie off the Flemish coast and the Thames estuary shows that they are composed of fragments of rock abraded and transported by tidal currents and storms in the same way that the chalk and limestone worn off from the eastern continuation of the island of Heligoland during the last two centuries has been reduced to the coarse gravel of the off-lying Dune.
Robert thus, in his own right and that of Dirk, was ruler of all Frisia (Zeeland), and thus became known among his Flemish countrymen as Robert the Frisian.
The Beguines wear the old Flemish head-dress and a dark costume, and are conspicuous for their kindness among the poor and their sick nursing.
He planted Flemish and Dutch settlers in the land between the Elbe and the Oder, fostered the growth and trade of Lubeck, and in other ways encouraged trade and agriculture.
Where possible, he substitutes human for divine intervention, and ignores the idea of the glorification of Rome and Augustus, which dominates the Virgilian epic. On this work were founded the Eneide or Eneit (between i180 and 1190) of Heinrich von Veldeke, written in Flemish and now only extant in a version in the Thuringian dialect, and the Eneydos, written by William Caxton in 1490.