Pop. (1890) 6184; (1900) 8381, of whom 3779 were foreign-born (many being Finns, - a Finnish weekly was established here in 1905), and 601 were Chinese; (1906, estimate) 97 01.
In the Finnish war he also managed to distinguish himself.
Other public institutions are the Athenaeum, with picture gallery, a Swedish theatre and opera house, a Finnish theatre, the Archives, the Senate House, the Nobles' House (Riddarhuset) and the House of the Estates, the German (Lutheran) church and the Russian church.
He was accompanied throughout his journey by his mistress, the Finnish girl Afrosina.
A finely illustrated book, Finland in the Nineteenth Century, by various Finnish writers, gives an excellent account of the country; also Reuter's Finlandia, a very complete work with an exhaustive bibliography.
For some years the country was subject to a practically arbitrary form of government, but the disasters of the Russo-Japanese War and the growing anarchy in Russia resulted in 1905 in a complete and peaceful victory for the defenders of the Finnish constitution.
It covers in Norway the division (amter) of Finmarken and the higher inland parts of Tromso and Nordland; in Russian territory the western part of the government of Archangel as far as the White Sea and the northern part of the Finnish district of Uleaborg; and in Sweden the inland and northern parts of the old province of Norrland, roughly coincident with the districts (loin) of Norbotten and Vesterbotten, and divided into five divisions - Torne Lappmark, Lule Lappmark, Pite Lappmark, Lycksele Lappmark and Asele Lappmark.
The inhabitants of the northern districts - nomad tribes of Samoyedes, Zyryans, Lapps, and the Finnish tribes of Karelians and Chudes - support themselves by fishing and hunting.
Sweden's peculiar geographical position made her virtually invulnerable for six months out of the twelve, her Pomeranian possessions afforded her an easy ingress into the very heart of the moribund empire, while her Finnish frontier was not many leagues from the Russian capital.
In the 19th Century (1899); The Finnish Question (1899); The Present Status of Religion in Germany (1901).