A very large proportion represents simple transhipment; but Aden is also the centre of the exporting and importing business of the Red Sea commercial region made up of the Hejaz, Asir, Yemen, Hadhramaut, Eritrea, Abyssinia and British and French Somaliland.
A large number of plantations in British Malaya and Ceylon are now actively exporting increasing quantities of rubber.
The monopoly for cutting and exporting the timber of the Mazandaran forests is leased to European firms, principally for box and oak.
Despite the lack of railway communication, and the migration of the Turkish inhabitants after the Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878), Sistova is an important commercial centre, exporting wine and grain and importing petroleum.
The best-known of these companies, the St d-Kamerun, holds a concession over a large tract of country by the Sanga river, exporting its rubber, ivory and other produce via the Congo.
The other Asiatic exporting countries also maintain native silk manufactures which absorb no inconsiderable proportion of their raw material.
It is the administrative centre of a district (sanjak) producing and exporting barley, oats, spelt and canary seed, and largely planted with mulberry trees, on which silkworms are fed.
It has various industries, including saw and planing mills, shipbuilding, glassworks and factories for wood-pulp, barrels and potato flour; and an active trade in exporting timber, ice, wood-pulp and granite, chiefly to Great Britain, and in importing from the same country coal and salt.
But it still retained its importance as a trading and agricultural centre, even in the Roman period, exporting not only agricultural products but textile fabrics and sulphur.
The harbour of Cagliari (along the north side of which runs a promenade called the Via Romo) is a good one, and has a considerable trade, exporting chiefly lead, zinc and other minerals and salt, the total annual value of exports amounting to nearly 12 million sterling in value.