In some anthracite collieries in America the small coal or culm and other waste are washed into the exhausted workings by water which gives a compact mass filling the excavation when the water has drained away.
The great excavation of the Osireion at Abydos, begun for the Society (then the Egypt Exploration Fund) by Prof. Edouard Naville, 4 ' but suspended owing to the war, it has not been possible to resume at present, owing to the commitments of the Amarna site and the heavy expense of such work as that at the Osireion, which cannot vet be contemplated.
The absence of scientific excavation in Egypt was deplored by the Scottish archaeologist Alexander Henry Rhind (1833-1863), as early as 1862.
The societies advised that trilithon 6, 7, with lintel - which had slewed round - and trilithon 56, which was leaning at a dangerous angle, should be examined with a view to replacement with as little excavation as possible; that the monolith and lintel 22 be replaced, and its companion sarsen (21) secured; and that trilithon 57, 58, should be re-erected in its place, which was exactly known.
The latter includes not only the actual excavation of the mineral, but also haulage and hoisting by which it is brought to the surface, timbering and other means of supporting the excavations, and the drainage and ventilation of mines.
Of these methods one of the chief is the plan of tubbing, or lining the excavation with an impermeable casing of wood or iron, generally the latter, built up in segments forming rings, which are piled upon each other throughout the whole depth of the water-bearing strata.
The excavation of Carchemish, lately suspended owing to political uncertainty in Syria, has been very interesting.
The broken vases were painted in a large bold style which remained an enigma till the excavation of the king's tomb.
As the excavation of the valley proceeded, the level of the stream was lowered and its course diverted; the cave consequently became drier and was far more frequently inhabited by predatory animals.
CATACOMB, a subterranean excavation for the interment of the dead or burial-vault.