In Britain the evergreen oak is quite hardy in ordinary winters, and is useful to the ornamental planter from its capacity for resisting the sea gales; but it generally remains of small size.
The evergreen oak is wild on the rocks about the Lake of Garda, and lemons are cultivated on a large scale, with partial protection in winter.
Quercus Ilex, the evergreen oak of southern Europe, is found in forests as far east as the Sutlej, accompanied with other European forms. In the higher parts of Afghanistan and Persia Boraginaceae and thistles abound; gigantic Umbelliferae, such as Ferula, Galbanum, Dorema, Bubon, Peucedanum, Prangos, and others, also characterize the same districts, and some of them extend into Tibet.
Among the more interesting plants of this deposit may be mentioned Torreya nucifera, now Japanese; an evergreen oak close to the common Quercus Ilex; Laurus canariensis, Apollonias canariensis, Persea carolinensis, and Ilex canariensis; Daphne pontica (a plant of Asia Minor); a species of box, scarcely differing from the English, and a bamboo.
A large part of the chaparral consists of the chaparro, a low evergreen oak of hardy characteristics, mixed with mimosa, desmauthus, zonia and others.
The evergreen oak of southern Europe is Q.