The Este family received a confirmation of their duchy of Modena and Reggio, and were invested in their fief of Ferrara by the pope.
At the end of the 13th century Padua, which had already captured Este more than once, became definitely mistress of it.
Visconti was determined to capture Padua as well as Verona, and made an alliance with Venice and the house of Este for the purpose.
To this period are due famous frescoes in the Palazzo Schifanoia, which was built by the Este family; those of the lower row depict the life of Borso of Este, in the central row are the signs of the zodiac, and in the upper are allegorical representations of the months.
Mary Beatrice of Este was chosen partly on the ground of her known religious zeal, but also because of her beauty.
He oIdducai left his domains to a natural relative, Cesare dEste, families, who would in earlier days have inherited without dispute, for bastardy had been no bar on more than one occasion in the Este pedigree.
About 1290 it first passed into the hands of Obizzo d'Este, and the authority of the Este family was after many vicissitudes more formally recognized in 1409.
When the Carrara family succumbed in 1405, Este voluntarily surrendered to Venice and was allowed its independence, under a podesta; and thenceforth it followed the fortunes of Venetia.
In the 10th century the family of Este (see above) established itself in the castle above the town.
The chief towns in the various provinces, with their communal population in 1901, are: Belluno 19,050; total of province 214,803, number of communes 66; Padua 81,242; Monselice 11,571, Este 10,779,10,779, Piove di Sacco 10,021; total of province 444,360, number of communes, 103; Rovigo 10,735, Adria 15,711; total of province 222,057, number of communes 63; Treviso 32,793, Castelfranco Veneto 12,440, Montebelluna 10,284, Conegliano 10,252; total of province 416,945, number of communes 95; Udine 36,899, Pordenone 12,409, S.