Pythagoras had speculated as to the existence of antipodes, but it was not until the first approximately accurate measurements of the globe and estimates of the length and breadth of the Problem oekumene were made by Eratosthenes (c. 250 B.C.) that of the the fact that, as then known, it occupied less than a quarter Antipodes.
Since the Pythagorean school of philosophy upheld the spherical as against the disk-shaped world, some of the ancient geographers, including Eratosthenes and Strabo, looked upon the hydrosphere as forming two belts at right angles to each other, one belt of ocean following the equator, the other surrounding the earth from pole to pole as in the terra quadrifida of Macrobius; while others, including Aristotle and Ptolemy, looked upon the inhabited land, or oikumene, as occupying the greater part of the earth's surface, so that the Indian Ocean was an enclosed sea and India (i.e.
Schaubach, Geschichte der griechischen Astronomie bis auf Eratosthenes (1802); Th.
A large collection of such curious information is contained in the Bibliotheca of Apollodorus, a pupil of Aristarchus who flourished in the and century B.C. Eratosthenes was the first to write on mathematical and physical geography; he also first attempted to draw up a chronological table of the Egyptian kings and of the historical events of Greece.
Scientific geography profited largely from the labours of Eratosthenes of Cyrene, whom Ptolemy Euergetes appointed The gnomon was known to the Chinese in the 5th century B.C., and reached the Greeks (Anaximander) through Babylon.
The earliest Greek accounts of the Sabaeans and other SouthArabian peoples are of the 3rd century B.C. Eratosthenes (276-194 B.C.) in Strabo (xv.
Gradually, from Eratosthenes to Tycho, Hipparchus playing the most important part among ancient astronomers, the complex astrolabe was evolved, large specimens being among the chief observa tory instruments of the 15th, 16th and even 17th centuries; while small ones were in use among travellers and learned men, not only for astronomical, but for astrological and topographical purposes.
The Alexandrian Eratosthenes placed chronology upon the scientific basis of astronomy, and Apollodorus drew up the most important chronica of antiquity.
In addition to the Eratosthenes Batavus he published Cyclometria sive de circuli dimen s ione (1621), and Tiphys Batavus s.
There seems to be a mistake in the first part of this statement; what Eratosthenes will have said is that the oldest prince after the king was the designated successor.