Although in some industrial centres the working-class movement has assumed an importance equal to that of other countries, there is no general working-class organization comparable to the English trade unions.

That the area of a parallelogram is equal to the area of a rectangle on the same base and between the same parallels, or that the volume of a cone is one-third that of a cylinder on the same base and of the same height, may be established by a proof which is admitted to be rigorous, or be accepted in good faith without proof, and yet fail to be a matter of conviction, even though there may be a clear conception of the relative lengths of the diagonal and the side of a square or of the relative contents of two vessels of different shapes.

The ratio of the times of cooling is equal to the ratio of the thermal capacities of the calorimeter and its contents in the two cases.

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It had been suggested, and Bohr had adopted this view, that the nuclear charge was equal to the atomic number, i.e.

Only contain single carbon linkages, then the number of such linkages is 2n - m, and if the thermal effect of such a linkage be X, then the termAisobviously equal to (2n - m)X.

It is evident that the discharged heat Qz is equal to the abstracted heat Q ', plus the work expended, seeing that the work W, which causes the rise in temperature from T 1 to Tz, is the thermal equivalent of the energy actually expended in raising the temperature to the level at which it is rejected.

In some solutions such as those of sugar the change in volume on dilution is nearly equal to the volume of solvent added; V' then becomes equal to V, the specific volume of the solvent.

By similar reasoning it may be shown that the number of beats per second is always equal to the difference between the numbers of vibrations in the same time corresponding to the two interfering notes.

On examining the diagram it will be observed that the maximum compressive stresses are parallel to and near to the down stream face of the section, which values are approximately equal to the maximum value of the vertical stress determined by the law of uniformly varying stress divided by the cosine squared of the angle between the vertical and the resultant.

And that thence every symbolic product is equal to a rational function of covariants in the form of a fraction whose denominator is a power of f x.